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ANTH 1020 –  RESEARCH PAPER DIRECTIONS

This paper requires students to explore an anthropological issue or topic from various points of view through academic research. Ideally, the research paper can be on any topic of interest to you related to those discussed in class, the text and other readings, handouts, films, etc. A list of suggested topics is also provided in this document if you need help selecting a topic.

A written abstract of the research proposal (i.e., a one paragraph summary of your topic and approach to it) must be submitted for instructor approval and feedback by the due date.  In the abstract or general topic paragraph you will identify what you are going to write your paper about. As part of this assignment, please identify 2 of your 5 sources that you are planning on using in your paper.

Research papers must include four sections (Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion, and Personal Reflection) and employ a minimum of four current (preferably after 2010) written sources including journal, magazine, or database articles or books. Newspaper articles and websites are not to be used under any circumstances and will not fulfill the citation requirements of this assignment. Ideally, the majority of your citations will be research articles from academic journals or texts which you can search for in the SCC access or in Google Scholar. These articles are written in a style that you should get used to reading and interpreting, and peers in the field review them prior to publication ensuring a standard of research is met. Cite all your sources in your paper.

Papers must include:
    A separate title page including title of the paper, your name, name of course, and the actual date paper is submitted. Do not number this page. 
    A minimum of four NUMBERED pages NOT INCLUDING THE ABSTRACT, TITLE PAGE, OR REFERENCES CITED PAGE  Page 1 should be the page that begins with your Introduction.  Do not exceed 7 pages.
    Papers must be double-spaced with one inch margins (left, right, top, bottom) and 12 point Times New Roman or similar style font is required.
    The final page should be titled References Cited and list all the references you have actually cited in your paper.  If you do not use a reference in your paper, it should not be included in References Cited.  Conversely, any reference you use in the body of the paper must be cited in that last page.  This page(s) is in addition to the five minimum specified above. 
    Submit paper in Canvas
As noted in other sections of this document, late research papers cannot be accepted in the 3 week presession course.  The research paper constitutes 18 percent of your course grade (54/300 points). The Introduction to General  Anthropology Research Paper Evaluation Form is attached to this document. I will use this document when grading your paper so please take careful note of its various components.

CHECKLIST FOR RESEARCH PAPER

____ Abstract of Research Proposal 

The first part of this assignment requires the student to submit a one-paragraph abstract of the research paper. Here you will identify what you are going to write your paper about and identify two sources that you are planning on using in your paper. 

____ Title Page

The title page must include title of paper, your name, SCC ID number, name of course (ANTH 1120-LN01), and the actual date paper is submitted. This page is not numbered.

____ Main Body of Paper: Headings and Sections 

The main body of your paper will include four sections with headings as follows: Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion, and Personal Reflection.

INTRODUCTION 
In the introduction you point out the importance and significance of the issue or research, highlight differing points of view, and clearly state the purpose of the paper. This generally consists of two good paragraphs designed to arouse the interest of the reader and articulate the importance of the topic. The student should also emphasize the anthropological importance or focus of the topic and why this subject is significant for study for anthropologists.

DISCUSSION 
In this section, apply what you learned from your research. This section should be at least 3 pages to be adequate. Include:

    Description of topic/issues (including brief historical context);
    Key anthropological aspect or factors involved in the issue problem;
    Current status of the issues, key areas of concern, possible future trends, and what is being done;
    Be sure to be balanced and objective in your presentation and analysis of the issue (personal opinion should be in the Personal Reflection section).

CONCLUSION 
This section generally consists of two or three good paragraphs summarizing the main points discussed in the paper. Spend some time composing thisa reader should be able to read this section only and get a general idea of the issue and key points related to it. Do not introduce any new points and do not provide a summary but a highlight of the main points you covered in your paper and why they are important. That is, what do you conclude from this research?

PERSONAL REFLECTION 
In this section (at least two-three good paragraphs) students will discuss why they choose this topic, specifically state how their ideas/opinions were either changed or reinforced, and give an overall assessment of how this project contributed to their education and understanding of anthropology and ability to utilize an anthropological perspective (holistic, comparative, cross-cultural, emphasizing human variation and diversity, etc.).

____ Citations     

Research papers use information from credible sources (e.g., professional journals, scholarly books, magazines, and databases that feature such research-based information). Because most research paper material comes from sources such as these, citations will be used extensively throughout the paper. The purpose of citations is to let the reader know the source of information, statistics, opinions, etc. The writer provides transitional sentences and general knowledge to provide a cohesive integration of information related to the topic. Use APA style for citing sources (examples are given below).

Important Note: Any information that comes from an outside source or reference must be credited or cited. Taking material from a source without citing is unacceptable. Plagiarism (taking information from another source without citing) is strictly prohibited and will result in a grade of 0 points for the paper and must likely an F for the course. Usually, introductory, transitional, and/or concluding sentences of a paragraph are the writers, and almost all the rest is cited. If an entire paragraph comes from a reference, you may cite at the end of the paragraph. Again, all cited sources must be listed in the references section and all listed references must be cited (using APA guidelines) or the paper will not be accepted.

____ References Cited

All references that you cite should be listed on a separate page titled References Cited; any sources you read but do not cite in the body of the paper should NOT be listed in References Cited.  You are required to use a minimum of four written sources or references but eight to ten is preferable for writing a really strong research paper for this course. These may include journal, magazine, or database articles and books. Preferably, the majority of the sources will be current (i.e., post 2000) but you may also cite references that are older if they are considered landmark works on the subject you have chosen or important in a historical context. As noted above, it is preferred that the majority of your citations should be research articles from academic journals. You are not to use any source that does not have a person(s) listed as the author. Newspaper articles and websites are not to be used under any circumstances unless specifically approved by your instructor.
This will be the last page of the paper which lists all references used and cited in the paper. Follow APA guidelines. Following are some guidelines you must follow:

    The order is determined by the authors last names (alphabetically listed). Begin each entry on the left margin with the authors last name. Double space and indent the next line (s) five spaces.
    After the author, list the date of publication and then the title of the book or article.
    For books, include the place of publication and the name of the publishing company.
    For journals, include the name of the journal, volume and number, page numbers.
    For magazine articles, include the name of the magazine and page numbers.

Note: Be sure to use the writing center for help in being sure you are using the proper format for not only your reference page, but citation format, writing style, etc. It is a free service the college provides, and you are encouraged to take advantage of it.

___ Writing Style and Overall Organization 

Please pay careful attention to spelling, grammar, clarity, page numbers, paragraphing, headings, margins, font size and style, use of APA format, etc. This aspect of evaluation reflects your ability to follow the directions as specified in this document. That is, be sure and follow writing guidelines very carefully on all college paperseach assignment is unique.

    Spelling: Proofread carefully. Remember that spell-check in word processing programs doesnt catch all errors. Common errors occur when apostrophes are used or when words have more than one spelling such as to, too, and two. Review these as well as its and its and others.

    Sentence construction: Be clear and concise in constructing sentences. Shorter sentences are usually clearer than longer ones. Read what you have written and revise wording if needed.

    Punctuation: Proofread for errors using periods, commas, and semi-colons. Be sure to also review how to punctuate citations.

    Paragraphing: A paragraph has more than one sentence, and all the sentences relate to the main idea of the paragraph. Typically, a paragraph will have 3-5 sentences although this can vary. Indent at the beginning of the paragraph.

    Wording: Do not use the following (1st and 2nd person) pronouns: I, me, mine, we, us, our, or your (OK to use in Personal Reflection section ONLY). Important guidelines to follow:
Re-word uses of first (personal) or second person pronouns. For example: Instead of our country, use this country, instead of We can find a cure, use A cure can be found, instead of You can become more informed, use People can become more informed.

Gender-free (non-biased) language means the writer is being inclusive of both sexes. If you do not know the sex of the person and want to use a singular pronoun, use both he and she or her or him. Often, it is easier to word the plural and use they or them. For example, Children fare well when they are in quality daycare.
Agreement of noun and pronoun is important. For example: Dont write, A child suffers greatly when they are exposed to violence in the home. Instead use Children suffer greatly when they. . . or A child suffers greatly when he or she. . .
Dont switch verb tense for no apparent reason. For example: Instead of, In a study, individuals driving abilities were impaired when they used alcohol. It shows how tragic drinking and driving can be, write, In a study, individuals driving abilities were impaired when they used alcohol. It showed the potential tragedy of drinking and driving.
    Neatness: All papers are to:
o    Be double-spaced.
o    Have one inch margins on left, right, top, and bottom.
o    Be typed on one side of the paper only using size 12 Times Roman or similar font.
o    Be fastened together with one staple in the top left corner. Do not put paper in a plastic cover.
o    The first page is not to be numbered, so being the numbering with page 2 (the first page is the one that begins with the heading INTRODUCTION, not the title page).
o    The paper should be a minimum of eight pages not counting title page or references page.

Direct quotes (quoting exactly from a source): Use these sparingly only to emphasize or dramatize a key point. There are different ways to do this. For short quotes, there are two ways to cite the source:

No scientific study has discovered any statistically significant difference in drug-usage rates between students who had taken D.A.R.E. and those who had not (Aspleaf, 2000, p. 17).
The authors name may also be used in the sentence using the following formats:
Aspleaf (2000) noted that No scientific study has discovered any statistically significant difference in drug-usage rates between students who had taken D.A.R.E. and those who had not (p. 17).
A recent national study (Aspleaf, 2000) concluded No scientific study had discovered any statistically significant difference in drug-usage rates between students who had taken D.A.R.E. and those who had not (p. 17).
If the quote is more than 40 words, use block form. The quoted material is indented five spaces from the left margin. Continue to double space. The author is cited as in the shorter quote (see previous section); however, the punctuation is different. The period comes directly after the quote. For example:
Although there has been a lot of publicity and promotion for the D.A.R.E. program, evaluations conclude that the program is no more effective than any other drug education program or more effective than no program at all. No scientific study has discovered any statistically significant difference in drug-usage rates between students who had taken D.A.R.E. and those who had not. (Aspleaf, 2000, p. 17).
Indirect quotes (paraphrasing): Research papers generally contain numerous indirect quotes [Ideas or information taken indirectly from a source (summarized or paraphrased) instead of direct quotes]. When citing information in this fashion, list the authors last name and the date of publication. For example:

In spite of what proponents of the D.A.R.E. program state, its ability to reduce substance use and abuse has yet to be demonstrated (Aspleaf, 2000).
If a source has multiple authors, be sure to list them in the same order as given in the original source. For example: (Dewey, Cheatam, & Howe, 1999). NOTE: For subsequent citations: (Dewey et al., 1999).

    Accessing Sources of Information: See LRC handout on how to use LRC (library) resources and access LRC databases from off-campus sites, including your home computer. When accessing sources online, you must limit yourself to sources that have a specific author, organization/publisher and date. Websites are NOT to be used unless approved in writing in advance. Check with your instructor if you are unsure whether a source is appropriate to use. Your five sources should represent some variety. At least three should be recent magazine/journal/database articles (using hard copies or online versions).

REFERENCES CITED (Examples from Sociology 1010)

Bensen, T.H. (2002, April 9). Gender and culture today. Time, 19-24.
Connor, J.T. (2001). Masculinity and femininity. New York: Worth.
Davis, T. (2003, January). Examining educational malpractice jurisprudence: Should a cause of
      action be created for student-athletes? Journal of Sociology, 10(2), 57+. Retrieved June
10, 2003 from EBSCOhost database.
Hansen, JR., Thomas, P.A., & Carter, A.I. (1999). Close relationships: Succeeding in love.
Aberdeen, MD: Carthage Press.
U.S. Census Bureau (2003a). Marriage demographics. Retrieved May 20, 2003, from
http://www.census.gov.
U.S. Census Bureau (2003b). Preferences for the sexes. Retrieved May 20, 2003, from
http://www.census.gov.
Walker, J. (1998). A look at androgyny. USA Today, 19-22. Retrieved August 2, 1999 from:
http://www.usa.com.
Young, M.O. (1996). Eleanor Roosevelt, the legend. In P.L. Smith (Ed.). Women in history.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
NOTE: Again, no websites or sources without authors (unless approved, as in for example the U.S. Census Bureau above).

INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY POTENTIAL RESEARCH PAPER TOPICS

For your research citations, you are encouraged to use both books and journals. Relevant journals include American Anthropologist, American Antiquity, Annual Review of Anthropology, Antiquity, Before Farming, Current Anthropology, Ethnology, Evolutionary Anthropology, Human Nature, Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, Nature, North American Archaeologist, Plains Anthropologist, Science, etc. Please begin with the sources listed in your textbook or other readings before identifying other sources. A good strategy is to identify a relevant or informative current article, chapter, or book on our topic and look in their bibliography for more citations.

A good strategy for choosing a paper topic is to identify a topic from lecture, the syllabus, films, the text, or the readings that interests you. An ethnographic study is particularly recommended for Cultural Anthropology.  There are a large number of other topics to choose from but try not to pick one that is so broad that you cant cover it sufficiently in 5-7 pages. This topic list contains many suggestions it is not inclusive. Please feel free to discuss any other topic of interest with your instructor. Again, a good place to begin is your textbook to identify a topic you would like to research in more depth. Some broad suggestions are listed below:

    The incest taboo among humans; exogamy, alliance, and competing explanations
    Detailed exploration of some aspect of the Inuit, Trobriand Islanders, Mbuti, Ju/hoansi, Yanomamo, Kwakiutl, a Native American tribe(s), or other culture that interests you
    Controversy surrounding Patrick Tierneys (2002) Darkness in Eldorado
    Anthropological concepts of race and/or ethnicity, discrimination, prejudice
    Explaining skin color or some other aspect of human variation (lactose intolerance, sickle-cell anemia) and how it relates to cultural aspects of adaptation
    Chimpanzee cultural behavior (tool use, communication, hunting, etc.) or other comparisons of human/nonhuman primate similarities/differences
    Subsistence technologies (foraging, horticulture, agriculture, and pastoralism) and/or ecological adaptations such as to the arctic, rain forest, arid regions, etc.
    Revitalization movements or other topics relating to religion, ritual, magic, cargo cults, The Ghost Dance other Native American religious practices, etc., rites of passage
    Pantribal sodalities and age grades (Native Americans or African societies)
    Ethnographic field techniques, research methods (participant observation, interviewing, life history, use of quantitative or quantitative research designs, etc.)
    Nonverbal communication, facial expressions, gestures, etc.
    Origins of human language, historical development of language, etc.
    Some other aspect relating to linguistics (descriptive, historical, sociolinguistics)
    Contemporary issues among recent or contemporary foragers
    Cross-cultural exploration of same sex marriages and related topics such as ritualized homosexuality among the Etoro, sexual orientations/practices in other societies
    Study of a key anthropologist and their contributions (Edward Tylor, Lewis Henry Morgan, Franz Boas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Leslie White, Julian Steward, etc.)
    Study of key approach in anthropology (Historical Particularlism, Functionalism/Structural Functionalism, Configurationalism, Neoevolutionism, Culture Ecology, Culture Materialism, Symbolic or Interpretive Anthropology, Human Behavioral Ecology, Postmodernism, etc.)
    Cultural resource management (archaeology) or some aspect of applied anthropology, medical anthropology, etc.
    Some aspect of kinship or social structure, lineages, clans, moieties, kinship classification systems, etc.
    Something pertaining to marriage and the family across cultures or in one specific culture
    Bridewealth/dowry in one culture or across cultures
    Polygyny/Monogamy/Serial Monogamy/Polyandry
    Feminist approaches in anthropology
    Potlatching
    Warfare among tribal societies; other topics surrounding warfare, conflict, or aggression
    Colonialism or neocolonialism and effects on indigenous groups
    Indigenous land rights
    Impact of dams on the environment
    Health care systems (cross-cultural), curers, shamans
    The Great Forager Debate (Ju/hoansi)
    The Great Protein Debate (Yanomamo), The Male Supremacist Complex
    Characteristics of Headmen
    Characteristics of bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states (choose one and elaborate)
    Rules of postmarital residence in general or in one or more cultures

INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY-Research Paper Evaluation Form

Area of Evaluation                Possible Points        Points Earned

Abstract 4 points)
(selection of a topic/relevance to             4                _____         
anthropology, well-written abstract, three sources cited, handed in on due date)

Paper Sections 

1-Introduction                      5                _____
(heading, follow directions, length, and state purpose of paper clearly)                             

2-Discussion                        22                  _____       
(heading, length, appropriate content, objectivity, organization, assessment and interpretation)

3-Conclusion                        5                  _____
(heading, length, overview of key points, no new information)

4-Personal Reflection                    5                  _____   
(heading, length, follow directions)   

Citations                        4                  _____
(APA style, used when called for) 
References                        6                  _____
(proper format, at least 3 of your 4 (or more), references need to be articles, all sources have authors listed, appropriate sources, etc.)
Writing Style and Overall Organization     5                  _____
(spelling, grammar, clarity, page numbers, paragraphing, paraphrasing, overall organization)

TOTAL                        56                  _____

Comments:

These are two sources I’d like to use.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00332747.1989.11024429

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/anthropology-and-psychiatry/FA498634713CA6565FB27988B4A5D9E8

Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Schizophrenia from an Anthropological Perspective
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