This assignment is your FINAL Research Proposal
*BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR PROPOSAL, if you would like to double check your document for plagiarism and proper citation, you can do so here:
Research Proposal- Plagiarism Check
Your final research proposal will bring together aspects of Labs #5-8. You may restate information from your previous labs, however: I will be checking to make sure you incorporated feedback for each section. This should be an essay format (no bullets) with proper introduction paragraph, sub-headings for organization of each section below, and conclusion paragraph. Use APA formatting and citations throughout your essay, and please include a title page and references list at the end of the document. (Writing style and APA format: 3 pts)
An example of a properly formatted APA-style paper can be found here (Links to an external site.).
Part 1: Introduction and Literature Review- 8 pts
Please use a introductory paragraph to state your research topic of interest and why this is an important area to study.
Next, state what is known in scientific literature about your research topic. In complete sentences, restate what you found in your Annotated Bibliography (Lab #5), answering the following questions for each research article you read . Try to integrate the two articles and summarize them in a way that connects back to your research topic (this literature review should only be one to two paragraphs).
What is the purpose of the studies? What were the authors’ research questions?
What constructs did the authors explore, and how were their variables measured?
Who were the participants?
What were the primary results/findings?
How does this connect to your research question?
Part 2: Research Questions and Hypothesis- 10 pts
Please restate the following information from your Research Ideas and Hypothesis assignment (Lab #6):
What is/are the empirical research question(s) you want to answer?
What are the main constructs that you will examine?
What is your independent variable (or predictor/cause)?
What is your dependent variable (or outcome/effect)?
What is your hypothesis for this research question? How will your two variables be related? What do you expect to find? Why?
Part 3: Sampling for your research study- 10 pts
Answer the following questions pertaining to Sampling for your research study (Lab #7):
Who is the target population you want to generalize your research to?
Who is your accessible population? If they differ from your target population, explain how and why.
Select one of the following sampling methods and indicate how you would use it to obtain a sample for your research question (make sure you keep the target and accessible populations in mind):
Simple Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
What is the criteria for inclusion and exclusion from your study?
How will you ensure that your participants are treated ethically? How will you lower their risk of any potential harm?
Part 4: Research Strategy, Measures, and Method- 10 pts
Restate the best Research Strategy you selected to answer your research questions in Week 8 (Lab #8). Indicate how you could design an empirical research study to test your hypothesis and/or answer your research question. Be sure to incorporate instructor feedback! Options from Week 8 included:
Experimental Research Strategy
Quasi/Non-Experimental Research Strategy
Correlational Research Strategy
Descriptive/Survey Research Strategy
*Bonus (if desired, talk to instructor): Qualitative Strategy
Please include the following information regarding your (ONE) chosen research strategy:
_________________________Research Strategy (fill in the name of the Research Strategy you have chosen)
Provide a description detailing:
How can this research strategy can be used to answer your research question? Describe the specific procedure you would use for employing this research strategy.
How would you operationally define your independent and dependent variables for this research strategy? How would you measure them? (Direct observation of behavior, survey, interview, etc)? List an example item for your measurement or assessment. Discuss how you could score/scale the variable, and how to interpret the scoring.
Example: My independent variable is family homelessness/high mobility. I will measure this via parent/guardian survey. An example item from my survey could include “How many times have you been evicted?” The variable will be scored by frequency of evictions, with lower scores indicating less risk for homelessness.
How and when will you collect data? How long do you expect data collection to take?
Part 5: Conclusion – 4 pts
Wrap up your paper by restating your expected results (hypotheses). If your hypotheses were to be supported, explain how your research might impact both science in general and your population of interest in particular. (How might it be used in the real world?) Explain how your thinking regarding this topic has changed from when you started this project, and how you might use this research in your current or future career.
Lab #5: Annotated Bibliography Assignment
Title: Co Parenting Problems with Toddlers Predict Childrens Symptoms of Psychological
Problems at Age 7
Reference: Umemura, T., Christopher, C., Mann, T., Jacobvitz, D., & Hazen, N. (2015). Coparenting Problems with Toddlers Predict Childrens Symptoms of Psychological Problems at Age 7. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(6), 981-996. doi:10.1007/s10578-015-0536-0
Summary: This article was about whether or not co parenting issues affected a toddlers risk of developing ODD, ADHD, somatic complaints, or/and affective disorder. This study was done because previous studies done on this topic have shown that problematic co parenting can affect a child. According to this article, it is true that unstable co parenting can negatively affect a toddler and their behavioral development. It is important to be aware of this if you are in a co parenting situation.
What did you learn from the article that you did not previously know related to your research topic? This research article validated my thoughts on how unstable co parenting arrangements can affect young children negatively. I learned that it can cause children in the future to develop ADHD and ODD.
How has it changed how you think about your research question and the significance of your research topic? This made me realize even more, the importance of my topic. Co parenting can be really tough on a child if not done right. I am learning more and more why that is.
Title: Parental Reports of Coparenting and Observed Coparenting Behavior During The Toddler
Reference: Mchale, J. P., Kuersten-Hogan, R., Lauretti, A., & Rasmussen, J. L. (2000). Parental reports of coparenting and observed coparenting behavior during the toddler period. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2), 220-236. doi:10.1037/0893-3126.96.36.199
Summary: This article talked about the importance of the toddler years, which is why this article is focused on that age group. Interparental antagonism and family cohesion have been the major areas previously studied in toddlerhood. This study was about and showed the importance of both the father and the mother’s role and the family dynamic as a whole in the young child’s life.
What did you learn from the article that you did not previously know related to your research topic? I learned about the different aspects a mother and a father can bring to a child’s life and how important each role really is in a child’s development.
How has it changed how you think about your research question and the significance of your research topic? It showed me how important a healthy parental relationship is in a child’s life.
Lab #6: Research Ideas and Hypothesis
My research topic is the effect of co parenting on toddlers. The reason why I
chose this topic is because I am currently working at a daycare and I am curious to see if co parenting affects the toddlers behavior. The empirical research question is does unstable co parenting affect toddlers behavior in preschool? I will look at the child’s behavior patterns at the preschool as well as looking to see if the child is in a co parenting situation. The independent variable would be unstable co parenting and the dependent variable is the child’s behavior at school. I think that unstable co parenting could cause stress and an unstable environment for a child which could affect the child’s behavior at school. If a child is going back and forth between two homes or if the coparenting relationship is unhealthy then that could provide instability in a child’s life.
If a child is in an unstable co parenting environment for the last year then the child will display more behavior in their preschool classroom. The longer a child is an unstable co parenting environment, child behavior problems in the classroom will increase. There is a big chance that I will have multiple children in my future classroom that are in co parenting situations. If I know a child is in a co parenting environment and is struggling with behavioral issues in the classroom then I will be able to make the connection that the child may be in an unhealthy environment and act on it. Maybe talk to the parents or get others involved. My goal is to make differences in children’s lives and this will help me achieve that.
Lab #7: Sample and Measures
My research topic is the effect of co parenting on toddlers and their classroom behavior. The reason why I chose this topic is because I am currently working at a daycare and I am curious to see if co parenting affects the toddlers behavior. By co parenting I mean parents that are separated/divorced, I want to see if there is a difference between a toddler and their behavior who has divorced parents and a toddler whose parents are together. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that co parenting (divorced/separated parents) can affect toddlers development and behavior in their classroom. The empirical research question is does unstable co parenting affect toddlers behavior in preschool? I will look at the child’s behavior patterns at the preschool as well as looking to see if the child is in a co parenting situation. The independent variable would be unstable co parenting (divorced parents) and the dependent variable is the child’s behavior at school. I think that unstable co parenting could cause stress and an unstable environment for a child which could affect the child’s behavior at school. If a child is going back and forth between two homes or if the coparenting relationship is unhealthy then that could provide instability in a child’s life. If a child is in an unstable co parenting environment for the last year then the child will display more behavior in their preschool classroom. The Independent variable and dependent variable works as a cause-effect relationship. Where the independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect. Unstable co-parenting is the cause and toddler behavior in the classroom is the effect. So, the cause of unstable co-parenting can be misunderstandings between spouses, and sometimes work and home relations also intervene leading to conflicts. While the effect on a toddler exhibits more bad behavior and social results than their friends, for example, grade maintenance, school drop-out rates, and lower grown-up instructive fulfillment. The longer a child is an unstable co parenting environment, child behavior problems in the classroom will increase. There is a big chance that I will have multiple children in my future classroom that are in co parenting situations. If I know a child is in a co parenting environment and is struggling with behavioral issues in the classroom then I will be able to make the connection that the child may be in an unhealthy environment and act on it.
Maybe talk to the parents or get others involved. My goal is to make differences in children’s lives and this will help me achieve that.
My target population is All Preschool Children in The United States and my accessible population is Preschool Students in Benton County. The reason why my accessible population differs from my target population is because it would be nearly impossible for me to look at every preschool student in The United States, and since I live in Corvallis, it would be more realistic for me to observe children in Benton County. My ideal sample size would be 24 preschool students. This wouldn’t be too overwhelming for me to observe, and it would also give me pretty accurate results. I will be able to make a reliable conclusion based on my findings. The three sampling methods I would use are: Simple Random Sampling, for this I would number all the preschoolers in Benton County and put I would be the numbers in a number processor and have it give me 50 numbers, those 50 numbers would be my sample. The next sampling method I may use is Stratified Random Sampling. For this I would split all the preschoolers into two groups, the first group being students with divorced, co parenting parents, and the second group being students that have parents who are still together. I would number up each student from each group and put them into a number generator. I would want 12 students from group A and 12 from group B, then I would invite them to be in my sample. Lastly, I could use Systematic Sampling, I would number all the preschoolers and every fifth student I would choose to be in my sample. Out of these three sampling procedures, I would pick Stratified Random Sampling because I would have an even amount of preschoolers for each group which would ensure representativeness and reliability in my sample. I would ask the schools in Benton County for a list of preschoolers, and I would probably need to send out an email to all the parents/guardians for consent. The only criteria I can think of for my study is that the preschooler must be enrolled in the preschool to be able to participate in this study. I will not need a control group for my study. The relevant unit of analysis for sampling in my research study are the preschoolers (students/individuals). I will make sure this research study is ethical by getting consent from the preschoolers parents/guardians and by doing no harm to the children, I will strictly be observing. Hopefully my study will take 3 months. I will have a different clip board for each group (group
A- divorced parents, group B- parents that are still together). I will take notes on each student twice every week. I will then use a plot graph to see my data/results.
Lab #8: Research Designs
Research Question: Does unstable co parenting affect toddlers behavior in preschool?
By unstable I mean divorced parents with an unhealthy relationship (upset, arguing when they see each other, etc.).
1. Descriptive/Survey Research Strategy- I would put out a survey to see if the child’s parents are divorced or not and if the child has behavior problems at school. The independent variable being the co parenting relationship and the dependent variable being the child’s behavior. If my hypothesis is correct, the results would be that an unstable co parenting relationship does affect a child’s behavior at school.
2. Correlational Research Strategy- This strategy would find the relationship between the two variables. Independent variable being the unstable coparenting relationship and the dependent variable being the toddler’s behavior. I would observe the child’s behavior and once I am done I would use a plot graph to see my results. I would expect the results to be negative if my hypothesis is correct.
3. Experimental Research Strategy- Cause and effect relationship between the two variables. I would have to manipulate one of the variables and the other variable would be controlled.
I think the Correlational Research Strategy would be best because I would be able to see the relationship between the two variables and determine if it is positive or negative, which is my ultimate goal.