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Each reply must be 200 words (1#, 2#, 3#), be written in current APA formatting, and must be supported by
assigned course assigned reading and/or biblical references.

The United States government has generally struggled in the area of information management.
Anderson et al. (1994) discussed how an existing problem of the government is delivering services
across a fractured pattern of vertically organized individual programs where issues are addressed by
individually authorized and funded programs that are monitored by specific agencies in the federal,
state and local levels (p. 336). Magana (2017) argues a new digital era is erupting and, as a result, we
will see exponential growth of a globally connected, interdependent network of knowledge architects
actively designing, producing and contributing new digital representations of human knowledge and
thought (p. XXIV). This has resulted in an explosion of new technology across the public sphere (Orton
Jones, 2017). And the sheer speed of innovation and rapid adoption of new technologies has pushed
the government to be more data-driven, people-focused, and agile (Satyam, 2018). As a government
employee, I have experienced the impact of this technological explosion.
Current Information State
White (2007) noted that information is a vital organizational resource (p. 3). In my experience, I
have personally witnessed how important information management is in the U.S. government and how
information management initiatives have risen in priority. Our agency has multiple departments
dedicated to information management, both within the District of Kansas and at the national office.
These professionals strive to ensure we have or will obtain the most advanced equipment, programs,
and training available. They are regularly engaging in collaborative meetings to identify newly available
systems and programs that will improve efficiency. Our national office provides resources or secures
national contracts that we can choose to utilize to gain access to more advanced information systems.
Our agency manages our information, developing and updating national and local policies that mandate
how the information is to be used, exchanged, and managed.
Our agency identifies as an evidence-based organization which means we rely on the most recent data
available in all decision-making. This is a newer concept in our field that requires us to have quick access
to data for our employees and stakeholders that is readily available. As such, the model from our
studies that would help us maximize information technology best is the SAMR model. The substitution,
augmentation, modification, and redefinition (SAMR) Model focuses on how technology changes the
nature of tasks (Magana, 2017). Since the importance of information management and information
technology has rapidly evolved, this model provides a development plan.
Valacich (2017) discusses how the rapid innovations in technology have led to work life creeping into
individuals leisure time and an increased focus on being permanently on call (p. 5). This is applicable
to information management in my work and personal life where we are required to be on call around
the clock. In turn, I expect individuals in my personal life to also be current on information technology
and readily available.
The dedication by our agency to information management has definitely improved our accountability
and ability to measure outcomes. We are provided regular reports that help us prioritize our work and

minimize data inefficiencies. As a supervisor in the organization, I am able to run quick reports to obtain
data related to my staff to evaluate performance and identify areas for improvement. However, there
have also been negative impacts of our rapidly advancing system. The increased availability of data has
led to increased demands on staff resulting in more frequent burnout. For example, we have reports
that generate data in color. If a deadline is missed, the report lists the missing information highlighted
in red. Employees have expressed higher levels of anxiety associated with the red on their reports.
Nationally, managers have noticed an increase in employees seeking to retire at an earlier age.

Information was managed in my organization utilizing computer technology that housed financial
information on the current year and out-year requirements for acquisition programs. Product managers
submit their essential needs in several requirements, building software applications, and the economic
cost of supporting the programs. A cost analyst determined the value that projects the life cycle cost of
supporting each requirement’s needs in a product office. In my former organization, 5 product offices
endorsed the organization’s overall goals and objectives. Each product office supplied expertise that
contributed to the successful execution of the mission. After each product office assessed their current
and out-year projections, consulted with the Cost Analyst, the submission was packaged into a program
objective memorandum (POM) and submitted to the Resource Managers Office for review; a needs
assessment was performed. An impact statement was provided in defense of the requirements for the
out years (5 years). This was an annual process. Accurate information and cost data are pertinent and
affect critical Army programs and compete for funding in the out-years. The POM packages were
submitted to specialized program evaluators groups (PEGs) to be evaluated. The PEG evaluators
determined if the requirements were valid and collaborated with the organizations if additional
information was required to make a fiscally sound determination. Therefore, the information provided
had to be justifiable and defensible. As the requirements are analyzed and deemed essential to support
a vital Army mission, the PEG administrator would tag the requirement as critical to the overall Army
mission. The funding would be authorized in the operating/mission budget for the specific 5-year cycle.
The stakeholders helped manage information and technology in my former position, where a team of
IT specialists ensured the systems were properly functioning. The IT personnel (civil servants and
contractors) resided under the umbrella of the HQ, CIO. The General Accounting Office’s (GAO) is also
instrumental in evaluating how public sector organizations invest in IT and IM initiatives and
innovations. The IT personnel ensured that the systems were adequately interacting with other
structures throughout the process from inception to completion. In other words, from field ready to
The information was controlled by our IT department, who was under the umbrella of our Chief
Information Officer. Our organization utilized a structured life cycle system process with action-oriented
phases that assist our organization and agency with implementing and managing computerized systems’
design and maintenance. This also helped auditors in evaluating our organizational practices. This
allowed us to monitor and assess the information system’s management, development, and
performance at critical points. This is very helpful in us achieving organization/agency performance

The current state of information management is challenged across the public sector. Although we rely
heavily on information processes, the execution and sustainability of these processes are often thwarted
by the bureaucracy of oversight and decision making. Unfortunately, I cannot speak to how data is
managed within my organization. As it stands, those policies and procedures are part of an internal
process that is governed under specific regulations. However, I will say that data is protected and
managed at levels to ensure accountability at the user, worker, manager and senior management levels.
The technology professionals have instituted a framework that help to foster an innovative learning
experience, collaborate across the agency and improve facets of performance. A meaningful
technology integration framework can guide how educators think about, enact, and communicate
educational innovation with technology to more reliable impact student learning (Magana, 2017, p.
Information is used to seek understanding under various conditions. Dependent upon the utilization of
data, it can be useful to drive decision making in an organization, answer questions and communicate
ideas. information is a vital organizational resource (White, 2007, p. 3). As a user of information in
both my personal and professional life, I find it beneficial in the execution of daily programs and the
formation of policies related to my work. At some stage, computer technology and components impact
my ability to deliver products and services to the various partners within my organization. In my
personal life, technology has become an integral part of adulting: managing my household task, planning
future events or just relying on the technical convenience of setting daily reminders to the calendar and
The management of information and technology within my organization is a collective
responsibility. Not only do technology professionals have to secure and manage the controls and
updates to information systems and access points, but business managers also have to ensure specific
systems are available to complete specialized jobs. Business professionals are required to ensure the
necessary resources are accessible for employers to complete their requirements and meet mission
goals. Programs are necessary to manage human resources and financial applications and technology.
Because there is a disparity in access and the cost of public service systems compared to private sector
services, acquisition of technology is limited. This limitation creates unique problems in managing the
public management information technology workforce, especially such things as reliance on outside
consultants, vendors and outsourcing the technology functions (White, 2007, p. 4).
Data use is governed by the policy and practice for which the information is used. The needs
for such technology and access to the information dictate how its managed. Technology use in
education: the intentional application of digital technologies to unleash students learning expertise, in
ways not possible without technology, to achieve ever higher levels of knowledge and mastery
(Magana, 2017, p. 39). The strategic mission creates the vision for the use of technology and
information. The augmentation of tools often provides the necessary functionality needed by
individuals, departments and many cases agency programs. Because the need for advance resources
are paramount in accomplishing short- and long-term goals, the SAMR Model use of technology is more
congruent with my daily functions -substitution, augmentation, modification and redefinition. The
SAMR is information centric in respect to adjusting with the needs of the workforce and task. For

example, at the substitution state one would substitute technology tools for other tools that might be
used to accomplish a task. The nature of the technology tool adds some functionality improvement to
the task at hand (White, 2007, p.18).

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