The idea that “history repeats itself” is a clich, but like many clichs it represents an essentially valid idea. For example: In one of our early lectures we will discuss how ostensibly “objective” reports from the battlefields of World War I were written by the generals themselves in ways carefully calculated for maximum public relations impact. CBS charged General William Westmoreland with masterminding roughly the same scheme during the Vietnam War — about fifty years later. And then about twenty-five years after that various news organizations accused the Pentagon of orchestrating news coverage of the Iraq war by embedding journalists with combat units and manipulating them into telling the story the generals wanted them to see.
Your assignment is to identify an issue in journalism and trace the way it has resurfaced. Use examples from at least three periods in American history, with the final period being the present day or very recent history. Compare the ways in which the issue was reincarnated, and do your best to answer the fundamental question: Did we learn anything from the past when the issue arose again?
Some possible issues are listed below. You are not limited to these; use your imagination.
o Censorship, especially during wartime
o News media invasion of privacy
o Pseudo-events in the guise of news
o Ethical codes
o Sensationalism in news
o Wartime security versus the need of the public to know about the war
o Media distortion
o Coverage of race relations
o Coverage of presidential health
o Coverage of presidential affairs
o Coverage of race relations
o The role of profit in news operations
o Chain ownership and its effect on news
If, for some reason, you cant think of a topic, although that seems unlikely, then use Censorship During Wartime, or Coverage of Presidential Health. The paper should be at least 1800 words (counting works cited) and all references must be cited. Remember, it must be an issue that involves journalism. Journalism must be the focus of the paper.
You must use the subheads below. A subhead is a heading written right into the paper to keep material organized and help the reader stay on track. I require subheads because they help with paper flow and organization. I have provided an example of a paper using subheads at: https://jppcurrentevents.files.wordpress.com/2018/09/example-of-subheads-and-citations.pdf (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). This is NOT at example of a topic, length, relevant subheads for your paper, or anything to do with this class other than to show what subheads are.
These are the subheads you must use for your paper:
o Introduction [being very clear on what the paper will cover, including previewing the three eras]
o Era 1 [Name the era in the subhead and provide approximate dates]
o Era 2 [Name the era in the subhead and provide approximate dates]
o Era 3 [Name the era in the subhead and provide approximate dates]
o Major Trends in the Evolution of the Issue [in other words, have things changed or stayed the same, and how?]
o What We Have Learned If Anything
Must have 8 work cited