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Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. (T/F, ANSWERS AT THE END OF THE PAPER)


____    1.   Anaplasia is recognized by loss or organization and a marked increase in nuclear size.


____    2.   A hallmark of cancer cells is their immortality.


____    3.   For the function of tumor suppressor genes to be lost, only one chromosome (allele) of the gene must be inactivated.


____    4.   Most cancers must acquire mutation in six distinct areas: growth signals, antigrowth signals, evading apoptosis, replicating ability, angiogenesis, and invasion and metastasis.


____    5.   There is no current evidence that associates obesity with cancer formation.


____    6.   The term “neoplasm” can refer to a benign tumor.


____    7.   The brain does not require insulin for glucose uptake.


____    8.   Somatostatin produced by the hypothalamus inhibits the release of growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.


____    9.   Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) directly affects melanocyte stimulation.


____  10.   Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by angiotensin I.


____  11.   Antidiuretic hormone has no direct effect on electrolyte levels.


____  12.   A person with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) usually craves cold drinks.


____  13.   Pituitary adenomas are malignant tumors.


____  14.   Abnormal immunologic mechanisms producing autoantibodies are responsible for both Graves’ disease and hypothyroidism.


____  15.   Thyroid carcinoma, although rare, is the most common endocrine malignancy.


____  16.   The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is damage to the glands during surgery.


____  17.   Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a greater degree of pancreatic changes than individuals with type 1 diabetes.


____  18.   Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by increased levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).


____  19.   Glucose levels are considerably lower in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis syndrome (HHNKS) than in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).


____  20.   When the myocardium hypertrophies, the capillaries of the heart become more extensive and numerous.


____  21.   Veins are less compliant than arteries.


____  22.   Autoregulation ensures constant coronary blood flow despite normal shifts in perfusion pressure.


____  23.   Metabolic or hormonal agents produce changes in the heart and circulatory system faster than autonomic neural transmission.


____  24.   While both produce vasoconstriction, the effects of norepinephrine are quantitatively more vasoconstrictive than the effects of epinephrine.


____  25.   Decreasing low-density lipoproteins (LDL) can cause regression of atherosclerotic lesions and improve endothelial function.


____  26.   Once fatty streaks accumulate, they form foam cells that cause immunologic changes that damage the endothelium.


____  27.   Even though air is lighter than blood, it can form an embolism and cause the occlusion of a blood vessel.


____  28.   Raynaud disease is characterized by vasospasms of large peripheral arteries.


____  29.   Many people with diabetes mellitus type 2, who were treated with drugs that increased insulin sensitivity, experienced a decline in their blood pressure without taking antihypertensive drugs.


____  30.   Chronic venous insufficiency can progress to varicose veins and valvular incompetence.


____  31.   Although cholesterol can be easily obtained via dietary intake, most body cells are also capable of synthesizing cholesterol.


____  32.   In high output failure, the heart increases its output, but the body’s metabolic needs are still not met.


____  33.   When fluid collects gradually in a pericardial effusion, the pericardium stretches to accommodate large quantities of fluid without compressing the heart.


____  34.   Acute rheumatic fever can develop only as a sequel to pharyngeal infection by group A -streptococcus.


____  35.   An increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume in diastolic heart failure may lead to pulmonary edema.


____  36.   Many cases of mitral valve prolapse are completely asymptomatic.


____  37.   Chorea or St. Vitus dance is the most definitive sign of rheumatic fever.


____  38.   Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides are increased in congestive heart failure and may have some protective effect in decreasing preload.


Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


____  39.   Which are cancers arising from connective tissue tissues?


Osteogenic sarcoma


Basal cell carcinoma


Multiple myeloma





____  40.   Carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from which tissue origin?


Blood vessels


Epithelium cells


Connective tissue


Glandular tissue

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