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THIS IS A UNDERGRAD LEVEL ESSAY!!! do not focus on what receptors are but on the specific GCPRS mediating the effects of neuropeoptides. and must provide experimental evidence from the papers listed below.

Large, highly complex networks of regulatory proteins control signaling, desensitization,
internalization and recycling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These regulatory
interactions appear to be particularly important in mediating the effects of neuropeptides.
However, several lines of evidence indicate that interactions between the receptor proteins themselves may also play a major role in these processes.

Please provide an overview and critical evaluation of the experimental evidence supporting a role for receptor-oligomers, both homoand heteromeric, in the regulation of signaling and intracellular trafficking of GPCRs. Place a strong focus on GPCRs mediating the effects of neuropeoptides. Please use the review articles suggested below as starting points for your own literature research. Please also suggest an experiment that would be helpful in supporting your conclusions.

Suggested reading:
Ulloa-Aguirre and Conn (2009) Targeting of G protein-coupled receptors to the plasma
membrane in health and disease. Front Biosci 14: 973 – 994.

Farran B (2017) An update on the physiological and therapeutic relevance of GPCR oligomers.Pharmacol Res 117: 303-327.

Chini B (2019) Expanding neuropeptide signaling by multiplying receptor functional states and sub-cellular locations. Cell Tissue Res 375: 49-56.

-Why is this topic or question important?
-What is already known about this topic?
-How do we know this? (i.e. what were the important experiments that gave us this information?)
-What are the outstanding question(s) concerning this topic? (i.e. what do we not know?)
-How will we go about answering these questions? i.e. Propose at least one experimental approach to address this/these questions.

Abstract: Define the topic, how is it important. What is known and what is your question.
-Introduction: Written after you have assembled the narrative/figures, and chosen how to tell the story. Need to tell the reader WHY this topic is important, and what they need to know to position the new findings within the field.
-The Question: Explain where the holes are. Why dont we know this, is it a technical limitation?
-Hypothesis: Given what you have learned about cell biology, how do you think it might work? There are always a few options, discuss them a bit. This is where a figure/model helps. -Experimental Approach: What will you do? Assume you have all the money in the world.
-Interpretations, conclusion, impact: How will you draw a conclusion from your experiments, what will it mean in the bigger picture?
-References: Use a reference manager software like Endnote to format the citations.

Please provide an overview and critical evaluation of the experimental evidence supporting a role for receptor-oligomers, both homoand heteromeric, in the regulation of signaling and intracellular trafficking of GPCRs.
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