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DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION:  THE GREAT SCHISM BETWEEN 
ROME AND CONSTANTINOPLE 
DIRECTIONS 
The following question is based on the accompanying documents. (The documents have  been edited for the purpose of this exercise). The question is designed to test your ability to  work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
Has relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. Uses all or all but one of the documents.
Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible and  does not simply summarize the documents individually.
Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors points of view.
ESSAY PROMPT 
Identify the causes of the schism or split between the Roman Catholics and the Orthodox  Christians. 
Based on the following documents, conclude whether issues, which existed prior to 1054 or ones which surfaced after the date of the original schism were more important in maintaining the split between the two churches. What types of additional documentation  would help access the causes and continuity of the Schism between the Catholics and Orthodox? 
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 
In 1054, ambassadors from the Pope excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople. The  next day, the Patriarch excommunicated the Pope. There began the official schism or split  between the Latin branch of the Catholic Church, hereafter called Roman Catholics and  the Greek branch of the Catholic Church, hereafter called the Orthodox Church. While
1054 is the official beginning date of the schism, tensions existed prior to 1054. Moreover,  despite attempts after 1054 to reunite the two churches, the schism has lasted until this day.  Nevertheless in 1968, Pope Paul VI and the Patriarch of Constantinople removed the bulls of excommunication against each other. 
Copywrite 2005 @ Paul Philp 
May reproduce for use in classroom; 
Any other use is strictly prohibited
DOCUMENT 1 
Robert de Clari, a French knight who participated in the attack on Constantinople, from his own chronicles recounting the Crusade, 1204 
Then it was announced to all the crusaders and the Venetians that every one should  go and hear the sermon on Sunday morning. Then the bishops preached to the army  and they showed the pilgrims that the war was a righteous one; for the Greeks were  traitors and murderers, and also disloyal, since they had murdered their rightful  emperor, and were worse than Jews. Moreover, the bishops said that, by the authority
of God and in the name of the pope, they would forgive the sins of all who attacked the Greeks. Then the bishops commanded the pilgrims to confess their sins and receive the  communion; and said that they ought not to hesitate to attack the Greeks, for the latter were enemies of God.
DOCUMENT 2 
Response by Nicetas, Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Nicomedia to the Latin Bishop of  Havelberg, Anselm, debate held 1136 CE in Constantinople 
We read in our ancient histories that there were three patriarchs closely linked in brotherhood among which Rome was the eldest. For this reason, Rome has been called the first and it is to her that appeal must be made in doubtful religious cases, and it is to her judgment that all matters that cannot be settled according to the normal rules must be submitted. But the Bishop of Rome ought not to be called the Prince of 
Priesthood nor the Supreme Priest but only the First Bishop. The Roman Church  separated herself by her pretensions. She became a monarchy. How can we accept decisions which were taken without our advice and of which we know nothing since we were not present at the council? If the Pope seated upon his sublime throne of glory wishes to hurl his orders at us, and if he wishes to judge us and even to rule us and our Churches at his own arbitrary pleasure, what kind of brotherhood or even what kind  of parenthood can this be? We should be the slaves, not the sons, of such a Church,  and the Pope would not be the pious mother of sons but a hard and imperious mistress  . 
of slaves. 
Copywrite 2005 @ Paul Philp 
May reproduce for use in classroom; 
Any other use is strictly prohibited
DOCUMENT 3 
Pope John VIII, Letter to the Greek Patriarch Photius, 861 CE 
It is our will that our Bulgarian diocese, which converted to Christianity through the efforts of my predecessor, Pope Nicholas, and which was assigned to the jurisdiction of  Rome by Pope Hadrian, be restored as soon as possible; and by papal authority we forbid any ecclesiastical ordinations to be performed in the same diocese by the heads of the Church in Constantinople. You will see that the bishops consecrated there and all lower clergy leave the country and refrain from entering our Bulgarian diocese. If  you give them the symbol of office, perform any ordination or communicate with them,  as long as they refuse to obey us, you will fall under the same excommunication as  theirs. 
DOCUMENT 4 
THE TRADITIONS OF THE LATIN CATHOLICS AND EASTERN ORTHODOX  AROUND 1000 C.E. 
Latin Catholics Eastern Orthodox 

Geographic Areas Western and Northern Europe,  parts of Central and Southern Europe 
Eastern Europe, most of Southern Europe, parts of central Europe 

Is there a secular  Authority?
Church is separate from secular  political authority
Byzantine Emperor is the political head of the Church 

Who is the chief  religious authority? Role of a General  Church Council?  Typical style of  government 
Who were the 
theologians?
Pope is head of the Church Bishops assembled in council are the  supreme religious authority 
Councils advise the popes Councils working together set  Church Policy 
Monarchy Oligarchy
Clergy Both laity and clergy 

How are religious  leaders chosen? 
The pope is elected but bishops are appointed by the pope
Greek Patriarchs and bishops tend to  be appointed by Emperor 

Religious Language  Used 
Married 
Clergy? 
Latin Greek, Slavonic (Vernacular)
No Yes, if the man is married before he  becomes a priest 

How is Communion administered? 
Use unleavened bread; wine is given  to clergy but not laity 
Copywrite 2005 @ Paul Philp 
Use leavened bread; wine is given to  clergy and laity 

May reproduce for use in classroom;  Any other use is strictly prohibited
DOCUMENT 5 
Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, a letter to the other Orthodox Patriarchs with  charges against the Pope, 867; the letter followed a council in which a Council in  Constantinople deposed Pope Nicholas on grounds of heresy. 
Where have you learned that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son? From what Gospel is this term taken? From which council does this blasphemy come? Our Lord  and God says that the Spirit proceeds from the Father. But the popes of this new  impiety state, the Spirit proceeds from the Son. This goes against the Gospel, it is  against the Holy Councils, and it contradicts the traditions of the great early Church  fathers. 
DOCUMENT 6 
A request by the Greek citizens of Constantinople to Pope Innocent III, c. 1215 when the city was ruled by a Latin Emperor 
Many patriarchs and emperors have desired to see that day of the reunion of the two  churches, but this has been denied. Since then, small is the gap between Latins  (Catholics) and Greeks which loosens the unity of the one church, see to assemble an  ecumenical council. But it is necessary before this council that we have a patriarch of  our own views and of our language who may teach and hand down our customs and  receive our confession. For that reason both in Jerusalem and in Antioch where there is  one king, there are two patriarchs, one for the Greek and one for the Latin of the same  teachings and languages and this similar to each people. For it is not proper to confess  your secrets through an interpreter to a patriarch of another language. 
DOCUMENT 7 
Metochites, a Byzantine diplomat from the Council of Lyons, which agreed to a reunion  of the churches of East and West, 1274 
Instead of a conflict of words, instead of proof, instead of arguments drawn from the  Holy Scripture, what we envoys constantly hear from the Byzantine people is by  accepting union with Rome, you have become a Westerner. Should we who are pro unionists simply because we favor union with Rome be subjected to being called  supporters of a foreign nation and not Byzantine patriots? 
Copywrite 2005 @ Paul Philp 
May reproduce for use in classroom; 
Any other use is strictly prohibited
DOCUMENT 8 
Serbian Law Code of 1349 
Article 6: Of the Latin Heresy 
And according to the Latin heresy, any Christians who have turned to  unleavened bread, let them return to Christianity. And if anyone fails to obey  and does not return, let him be punished. 
Article 7: Of the Latin Heresy 
And the Great Church shall appoint teachers in all cities and market towns to  bring back Christians from the Latin heresy, who have turned to the Latin faith,  to give them spiritual instruction
Article 8: Of Latin Priests 
And if a Latin priest converts a Christian to the Latin faith, let him be punished  according to the laws of the holy fathers. 
Note: Serbia is an Orthodox Slavic kingdom in East Central Europe. 
DOCUMENT 9 
Robert Guiscard, King of Sicily, 1076, letter to Henry, German Holy Roman Emperor 
I have taken Southern Italy from the dominion of the Greeks with a great loss of blood.  I withstood the pride of the Muslims (rulers of Sicily) as well as great tribulations from  the Greek fleet and empire. I submitted myself to the pope, along with all the land I  conquered. And I received the lands back from the hands of the pope so that through  the power of God, he would be able to protect me from the malice of the Muslims and  the pride of the Greeks. Because I desired to be subject to God, I was able to conquer. I
hold from Him the land. 

The great schism
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